Critical sees the origin of science fiction in the philosophy of ancient Greece –

The term “science fiction” (FC) has been popularized author, inventor and publisher Hugo Gernsback in the first decades of the 20th century. However, the poetry of science (1848), Robert Hanna have already inspired book, the word in science fiction, to join the empiria and beauty. Since then this genre has aroused heated arguments ranging from the adoration of fans and a variety of official book the phenomena of leisure and the diminution of the Academy. As a decisive contribution in this colonization of the future, editora Seoman now brings to the reader, Brazilian real history of science fiction: from prejudice to the conquest of the masses Adam Roberts is one of the most important studies in this genre. Edition of 700-page account, with Mario Molina, view Silvio Alexander, with an introduction by Braulio Tavares and conclusion by Gilberto Schroeder. The first English edition 2006. The Brazilian edition of the picked-up published 2016, and has expanded profoundly changed by the author.

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Roberts helps the reader of this demarcation on the basis of some criteria. One of them is to emphasize the exceptional trips (excursions extraordinaires). In this sense, there will be three modes of travel: temporal; spatial or technology; fake or real. Therefore FC always support in metanarrativas (novels of long duration), both on the formation of the universe and humanity of life on Earth, or in the expectation of future scenarios positive (utopian) or negative (distopias). To this end, the FC uses an essential attribute: stability. Extrapolation is fiction and speculation and addresses a set of data in the world. Almost always extrapolate its goal of building the consequences of the search for newness, a novum from Latin.

When taken to its limit, the technology blends with magic. In spite of this emphasis of the master of the genre, Arthur C. Clarke, there will be no separation between these two records. The difference between FC and imagination will be the difference between technology and magic. For FC, even when the predominance of the magical or fantastic and the explanation of the causes of Always of the material. For Roberts, the dialectic between a fake and the Protestant and Catholic dating back to the 17th century.

While the Catholic keeps the resources from the magic in your imagination sacramental imagination Protestant penetrates the tissue of the measurement. Explains the internal mechanisms of the natural processes, the unpacking of the meaning of fun. The dynamic between magic and technology, science, and mystery of Catholicism, Protestantism, did you specify FC as predominantly Protestant. Alike, Roberts relies on the concept of secularization Charles Taylor. In the secular world is the world that arises from the “case of the possibility of disbelief”. This world divided radically between the natural system and the system is fun, carried out by Protestant Europe. If Natural should be from scholars of the causes and effects can be measured in physical terms.

In turn, modern science from the 16th century on the two arrays: experiments and refutabilidade. Both concepts were developed, respectively, by the philosopher of science Karl Popper and Paul Feyrabend. Popper is the author of following motto: Everything can not be refuted is not science. Feyrabend creating a “chaotic.” Assumes that science should not rely on one way as the dominant, but in a plurality of interrogation methods, including non-scientific. This will be the heart of modern science, therefore, from the FC. Change in the case of the literature of fantasy speculation. FC becomes a way of doing science.

Academic studies in the general allocation of the beginning of the club in the 19th century. Sometimes retroagem to the 18th century. One of the originalities Roberts is to disprove this chronology. Is the source of the FC in ancient times, in the worlds (theories about the structure of the universe) in cosmogonias (theories about the origin of the universe) of the first philosophers (physikoi) Plato and Aristotle. Also connect the FC on the first flight and the unusual, such as a trip to the Moon described by Lucian state (the 2nd century d. C.) and the rise of the soul to the stars and designer of by Cicero in his dream of Scipio, the source of Somnium (1634) by Johannes Kepler, one of the heroes of the revolution of the universe of the 17th century. Some of these actions can be considered almost like a religion speculative because it unites the rational knowledge of the divine in the same premise. This hypothesis generates awkwardness, speculation, and provides a basis for another of the club: alternative worlds.

This vision is at the same time the transcendent and the physical universe puts the essence of FC. Because of this, few works of medieval could be included in this sex. Even the journey of Dante Alighieri through the natural surroundings, the hacks of the universe is still in the secret key. FC is the missing link to seniority only from the 16th century. More precisely on the basis of a utopia the new worlds and cosmografias great, Campania and blueberry, Copernicus and Galileo, Kepler and Brian.

From the 16th century, the literature begins with the description in the work of Marino, Ariosto travel between planets. In the 17th century, is a masterpiece of a trip to the Moon signed by Cyrano de Bergerac. Travel the ecstasy of the universe will be the hallmark of writers and thinkers such as the Jesuit Athanasius Kircher. Hit maps of the Earth and not in heaven. On zoologias of the earthly realms outside of the earth to gain strength with the reports of travelers. The creators of the worlds utopistas as Gabriel de Foigny Nicholas Goodman, Joshua Barnes, Johann Valentin Andreae is the mentors of this change in the mental shapes.

FC connects the opening of concepts: infinity, and the plurality of the worlds. Therefore the death of Giordano Bruno in 1600, condemned by the Inquisition, is the founder of the modern FC. Every FC since then relate to a greater or lesser extent with cosmology adjusted my micro and organicista this genius of pay. Description Club of the 20th century occupies more than half of the work. But the wealth and erudition of this preamble of this type is one of the high points. And through him, we understand how adjustment factors Fontenelle, monadologia Leibniz, the subtle bodies Descartes and even Newtonian mechanics led to the strong work of the FC. They can also be tailored according to the book speculation.

On the other hand, Gulliver’s travels, “Swift” (1726) and on Micrômegas (1752) Voltaire guide designs and topologies of the 18th century. Consider a new strand: the game between the small and the great, the microcosm and the universe. Age of Reason Produces not only a massive expansion in the field of Science and knowledge of the universe. It also produces the reaction of the 19th century this knowledge is unlimited. The myths of Frankenstein and Faust, the Gothic novel contrailuninismo of Sade, and urine.

Not coincidentally, this was the reason follows-if the era of the packing (1850-1900). This is the era of the discovery of the deep time of life (Darwin) and the deep space of the universe: the amount of almost endless worlds. It was also the discovery of the universe, the principle which governs the energy loss of the system, Clausius, Maxwell, Boltzmann, cornerstone in a large part of the club of the 20th century. Loss of a sense of fun, and the eclipse of God and of the interaction of imunizadoras produce interesting combinations: FC its charm. They also produce two of the greatest exponents of the club of all time: Jules Verne and Wells.

The principle of Verna simple: mobilis in mobile (mobile element of mobile). Modern societies, thin walls and foams, are community development the fruits of the ideologies of expansion. This is a fictional account of the famous tower if it was forged in the crucible of FC. At the beginning of the 20th century the worship for the machines you have linked to inclusion, Roberts reminds us of the focus of the phase-out of the owners of the FC, almost always critical to especismo (consumption of nonhuman species), anthropocentrism (human-centred in the universe) the patriarchal system, being the FC of sex with a greater number of authors from the literature.

Frequency between the mystical experience of being infinite, and the limits of reason manipulation expected from the friction of the basic Club of the 20th century. Particular Masters Huxley and Orwell, Clarke, Asimov, set up the Golden Age of FC (1940-1960). Cultural changes led to the change of the imaginary of the following contracts, as defined in the new era (1960 to 1970). Note-If a strong flow of popular culture and the media in the book such as Frank Herbert, Ursula K. Le Guin, J. G. Ballard and Philip was. Dick.

The pour of this at the present time in a manner that is strong and diverse. Strong through the expansion of the club: Hollywood, the entertainment industry, comics, TV, movies, series, international networks of fanfics, fan-clubs working transmídias virtual platforms facts to expand interaction, games, facts, immersive, gallery, links to multimedia and holografias. Any: the global market in which the distribution of billions of dollars every year.

Diverse because of this amplification giant somehow damaged one of the pillars of CF: the context of ideas. Organizations tend to simplify the metaphysical questions and make a tool of science. Reduce the power of speculation, as the backbone of the genre. Speculation has achieved amazing. Counter-culture anarchist virtual Cyberpunk turned the nostalgia and the evasion of steampunk (the rejection of a gift). Above all, there began the collapse of the value of the business. Thus some of the greatest writers such as Thomas Pynchon, is not welcome life and work of the FC.

However, in spite of this diagnosis is negative, the work of Roberts himself lying. Subscribe to as one of the most comprehensive archaeological and the amount of the FC. Survey data from Pulp Fiction (popular magazines) from the early 20th century and the intersections between FC WhatThen years of existence, the film deserves a special mention. Phenomena such as the series The Tale of a nation in (the tale of the Aia), based on novel writer of speculative Margaret Atwood, among many others, can also serve as a contraexemplo this vision, the inhibition of the present and the future of FC.

A question hanging at the end of the reading: Why didn’t you mention Lovecraft? As all, Roberts should be grudges and idiosyncrasies. However, if we think about the beauty of the sprawling information and analysis references to popular scientists that the author exudes in this unique work, this omission does not cease to be beautiful irony.

*Rodrigo Petronio is a writer, philosopher, professor at Faap and after a doctoral student at the center of technologies of intelligence and digital design (TIDD/PUC-SP)

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